Most Popular Dog Training Methods
Most Popular Dog Training Methods
This article is a good overview of the most popular dog training methods used today. It gives a basic understanding of what dog training entails and some excellent pointers or tips to guide you in the training process.
- Researching Dog Training Methods
- Direct And Indirect Learning
- What Is Observational Learning?
- What Is Classical Conditioning?
- What Is Operant Conditioning?
- Aversive-based Training
- Reward-based Training
- 2 Dog Training Methods Made Popular On TV
- 2 Expert Dog Trainers Views On These 2 Methods
- Summary of Important Facts About Dog Training Methods
1. Researching Dog Training Methods
I never thought researching the different dog training methods could be so confusing and for the first time ever the internet wasn’t too much help either.
Where do one start to learn all there is about dog training? You probably just got your new puppy and can’t wait to learn it a few basic things and now you are faced with all these confusing words like Classical Conditioning, Koehler Method, Motivational Training, Clicker Training, Electronic Training, Operant Conditioning, Model-rival Training, Dominance-based Training, Alpha Dog Training, Aversive-based Training, Relationship-based Training, Dog Obedience Training, Positive Dog Training, Positive Reinforcement, Pack Leaders, Protection Dog Training, Reward-based Training, Whisperers, Listeners etc. Once you see all these words it just dampens your spirit and dog training becomes this huge mountain.
Well, you don’t need to worry about all these dog training methods or words, because it took me many, many hours of reading and research to try and see the light in all this confusion and hopefully you won’t have to feel the same way I did after you read this article. So, lets get started 🙂
2. Direct And Indirect Learning
When it comes to “learning” there are basically 2 ways through which people and animals learn namely:
A. Direct Learning and
B. Indirect Learning
When it comes to “Learning Methods” there are 3 learning methods through which people and animals learn and which are also used as “Training Methods“:
- Operant Conditioning – Which is learning through consequences and falls under the direct learning group.
- Classical Conditioning – Which is learning through association and also falls under the direct learning group.
- Observational Learning – Which is learning through observation and is part of the indirect learning group.
3. What Is Observational Learning?
Observational learning is exactly what the name says. A person or animal will observe what another person or animal do and then through observation will copy, model or imitate, that person or animals behavior. Observational learning is also referred to as shaping or vicarious reinforcement.
Although observational learning can happen at any point in time in ones life it mostly occurs during childhood. Children will mainly learn how to respond and behave towards others by watching how their parents or other authority figure/s interact with each other.
Although observational learning has been tested successfully with animals it has never been found to be one of the “preferred dog training methods” as operant conditioning and classical conditioning.
4. What Is Classical Conditioning?
Classical conditioning was first described by a Russian physiologist named Ivan Pavlov. Pavlov use to do experiments with dogs whereby he would spray “meat powder” into a dogs mouth and then measured their salivary or “drooling” response. He then did tests whereby he would ring a bell just before he sprayed the meat powder into the dogs mouth.
At first nothing happened but as time passed he noticed that the dogs began to salivate as soon as they heard the bell ring. This meant that Pavlov classically conditioned the bell by ringing it every time just before he sprayed the meat powder in the dogs mouth so the dogs would learn to associate the sound the ringing bell makes with the taste of food.
Classical conditioning occurs daily to our animals without us even knowing it. When we get ready to give our dogs their food, they will jump up and get excited, and also start salivating many times as soon as they hear the clinging noise of their food bowls. Have you seen how excited many dogs get as soon as the owner take their dog leash? This happens because they associate the noise the dog leash makes with going for a walk, going to the park or having fun etc.
Classical conditioning has become an important part of training for animal trainers. The problem marine mammal trainers have when they just start training these mammals, is for the dolphins, sea lions or whales etc. to realize the treat(fish) they receive from the trainers at that specific point in time, was an important consequence of their behavior.
This is how trainers associate something that is a lot easier to “deliver” with something the animal wants through classical conditioning. This is also called “a bridge”, because it bridges the time between when the mammal performs a desired behavior and it receives it’s reward. Marine mammal trainers use a whistle while many other trainers, like dog trainers use a clicker(a small plastic box with a button or metal like tongue that makes a clicking sound when pressed)
Trainers classically condition a clicker by clicking it every time they give a treat to the animal. Another way of describing this is that the trainer uses the clicker as an event marker. In the beginning the trainer will do it a few times in succession just so the animal can start to associate the clicking sound with the treat.
The idea is to create an association in the dog’s brain between the click and the treat. Once the animal looks at the trainer as soon as it hears the click, even before it gets a treat, the trainer knows the animal associated or is starting to associate the clicking sound with the treat. Clicker trainers call this association “charging up the clicker” or “creating a conditioned reinforcer“.
This association strengthens very quickly during the “charging process” and is soon so strong, that the click alone is rewarding to the dog. “Charging up the clicker” is a bit of a misinterpretation, “charging up the dog” is a actually a better description, because the trainer changes the way the dog feels about the noise that the clicker makes. As soon as this happens the “click” can be used as a training tool.
Clickers are an excellent tool to use in dog training and are widely used with operand conditioning, which is another dog training method and a lot more popular than classical conditioning.
5. What Is Operant Conditioning?
Operant conditioning is by far the most talked about and most popular method used when it comes to training dogs. Within operant conditioning two methods or categories of training are being used namely Aversive-Based Training and Reward-Based Training. Let me just say, while there are many different techniques and tools being used for dog training today, their underlying principles are all part of one of these two methods or categories.
Before we discuss the details of aversive-based training and reward-based training as part of operant conditioning, here are a few guidelines:
Operant conditioning consists of 4 principles namely:
- Positive Reinforcement using the sign (R+)
- Negative Punishment using the sign (P-)
- Negative Reinforcement using the sign (R-)
- Positive Punishment using the sign (P+)
The 2 kinds of consequences that guides operant conditioning are:
- Reinforcement or reinforcers are things that enhances, strengthens, increases, improve or encourages a behavior. Often animals(and people) will see the “starting of something nice or good” or the “ending of something bad or unpleasant” worth pursuing and will repeat the behavior that cause these consequences. Because these consequences increase the behaviors that lead to them they are called reinforcers and because these are consequences the animal will work to obtain, they in turn strengthen, increase or improve the behavior. Reinforcement have both positive and negative versions.
- Punishment or punishers are things that suppresses, weakens, reduce, decreases or stops a behavior. Often animals(and people) will see the “ending of something nice or good” or the “starting of something bad or unpleasant” worth preventing or avoiding and will not repeat the behavior that cause these consequences. Because these consequences decrease the behaviors that lead to them they are called punishers and because these are consequences the animal will work or try to avoid, they in turn weaken, decrease or stops the behavior. Punishment have both positive and negative versions.
6. Aversive-based Training
Aversive-based training, also known as traditional training or compulsive training centers around things the dog don’t like or find unpleasant.
The following 2 principles of operant conditioning is part of aversive-based training:
1. Negative Reinforcement (R-)
Negative reinforcement means to withhold or remove something bad or unpleasant when the dog performs correctly. So negative reinforcement increases a behavior. To use negative reinforcement the trainer must be able to control the bad or unpleasant that is being removed. It’s “negative” because something is removed when the dog performs correctly. It’s “reinforcement” because it increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated.
Example/s of Negative Reinforcement
Negative reinforcement would be to put pressure on the dogs collar while giving the command “sit”. As soon as the dog sits, the pressure on the collar is released. Another example is to pinch the ear or toe of the dog when you want the dog to pick something up or release something with his mouth. The dog isn’t being hurt, but do experience some discomfort and to get rid of the discomfort, the dog has to take something in it’s mouth or release it to get rid of the discomfort.
Secondary Negative Reinforcers
Trainers hardly ever associate a particular command with negative reinforcement although it can be done eg. with positive punishment the word “No!” is used as a secondary positive punisher.
Internal Reinforcers and Punishers
It’s impossible to control all reinforcers and punishers all the time. Things such as environmental factors will affect an animal’s behavior. Some of these are the animals internal environment and their own reactions to things eg. a dog barks because it is bored etc.
“No Reward Markers”(NRM) and “Keep Going Signals”(KGS)
There is another consequence to any behavior which is obvious but hardly mentioned called “Nothing“. Yes, a trainer gives a command to a dog and “nothing” happens or the trainer gives a command and the dog only does half of what s/he is supposed to do.
The aim of a “No Reward Marker”(NRM) is to get the dog to try something differently. Trainers use “No Reward Markers”(NRM/s) to tell the dog there is NO REWARD awaiting him/her if s/he doesn’t correct the behavior. Trainers will use “hu-uh”, “wrong”, “nope”, “try again” etc. as NRM/s eg. lets say you are teaching your dog to sit, but instead the dog lies down, you can give the NRM like “hu-uh”, so the dog will try something different. Never use the NRM as a conditioned punisher and don’t use the NRM with something you never want your dog to ever do. Only use it to correct a behavior. Use NRM/s when the dog tries something you already taught it, but it’s the wrong thing(exercise). If you say sit and the dog lies down, then use the NRM of “hu-uh”, so the dog will try something differently, in this case “sit”.
Trainers use “Keep Going Signals”(KGS) to tell the animal it’s nearly there, it’s on the right track and if they keep going they will get their reward or reinforcer eg. the best way to explain this is if you teach a dog to roll over. The dog will start the exercise but just go so far as to lie on it’s side. The KGS is there to tell the dog it’s halfway there and if it just rolls a little more it will get it’s reward.
To create a KGS you need to use a unique sound as the KGS, something that are completely different from any other sounds. A sound is better because if you use a verbal command or cue it might distract the dog to look at you and you do not want this. You want the dog to concentrate and continue with whatever exercise s/he is doing. The sound need to tell the dog to keep going. The best way to start training a dog the KGS is with something the dog already knows eg. if the dog has learned how to retrieve something, throw the dumbbell or whatever you use and when s/he is halfway back give the KGS. When the dog finishes, click or praise and give the reward.
Timing is very important in the beginning when you just start off. Initially you want to give the KGS at a point in the exercise where it’s practically impossible for the dog to stop or discontinue. The last thing you want is for the dog to stop halfway through the exercise and run to you, to ask you “huh, what’s wrong?” 🙂
Watch the dog’s body language really carefully. Common reactions in dogs that understand the KGS would be a quick wag of the tail to say “I heard you” or they are more keen to finish the task they are busy with. Once you get the feeling the dog understands the signal, you can start to move the timing of the signal around a bit. If the dog gets confused or misunderstands give the equivalent of “wrong” or “oops”, take a break and then start or try again. This time keep the KGS where the dog is almost assured of getting it right.
Remember the question “How do you eat an elephant :)” and the answer is “one bite at a time” meaning one step at a time will get you there quicker 🙂 Once you can use the KGS at any point in the exercise and you can see through the dogs body language s/he reads you, then you know the dog have it rooted or ingrained. Teach this to your dog in as many exercises as possible so it becomes 2nd nature to the dog.
2. Positive Punishment (P+)
Positive punishment means to start, add or apply something unpleasant or bad to stop or reduce a behavior. Normally the word “positive” is associated with happy, good, upbeat etc. but here positive means “started” or “added”. What you need to remember is that the animal is not punished but the behavior(is reduced). It’s “positive” because something is applied when the dog performs incorrectly. It’s “punishment” because it stops the behavior.
Example/s of Positive Punishment
Positive punishment would be to do something bad or unpleasant so the dog would stop a certain behavior eg. if you squirt your dog with water every time s/he starts barking for no reason. The unpleasantness will teach the dog to make less noise. Another example would be to punish your puppy with a swat of the newspaper if s/he pee on the rug.
Secondary Positive Punishers
It’s very important to use a secondary positive punisher with the first to make it more effective eg. by using the word “No!” with the punisher an association is formed between the word and the consequence which makes it more effective.
Timing of using Positive Punishment
The timing of the positive punishment must be perfect for it to have an effect on the behavior. If you catch your dog peeing on the carpet and you hit him when he comes to you, you are suppressing coming to you. The dog will not make the connection between the punishment and the peeing, no matter how much you point at the wet carpet. Pushing the dogs nose in the pee will also not help!
For the aversive to really be effective and stop the behavior in its tracks it must be greater than the reward. Some animals with experience in rewarding consequence for the behavior, need an even stronger or greater aversive to stop or decrease the behavior. By using or giving a small aversive like a light electric shock and a stern talk first, which then builds up to a stronger shock and full-on yelling, will give the dog a chance to adjust to the aversive, and cause the aversive to be useless.
Remember physical punishments can cause physical damage just like mental punishments can cause mental damage. Only apply as much punishment(or aversive) as it takes to stop the behavior. Once you’ve realized you’ve applied a punishment more than three times for one behavior, without the behavior decreasing, you are not “reducing the behavior”, you are harassing and probably abusing the dog.
7. Reward-based Training
Reward-based training also known as positive reinforcement training centers around things the dog likes or find pleasant. This is by far the most popular dog training method today.
The following 2 principles of operant conditioning is part of reward-based training:
1. Positive Reinforcement (R+)
Positive reinforcement means rewarding, adding or giving something good to the dog when s/he performs correctly. Because the animal wants that good thing again, it will repeat that behavior. It’s “positive” because something is given or added when the dog performs correctly. It’s “reinforcement” because it increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated.
Example/s of Positive Reinforcement
Positive reinforcement is giving the dog a treat or attention for executing or performing a certain behavior eg. the dog gets a cookie for returning when called.
Primary and Secondary positive reinforcers plus Bridges
Primary positive reinforcers are usually something that the animal doesn’t have to learn to like because it comes naturally. Primary positive reinforcers usually include water, food, sex(a chance to mate) etc.
Secondary positive reinforcers are usually something that the animal must learn to like and is usually accomplished through a training method such as classical conditioning. Animal trainers often create a special secondary reinforcer called “a bridge“.
It’s called “a bridge“, because it bridges the time between when the animal performs a desired behavior and it receives it’s reward. A bridge is a stimulus that has been associated with a primary reinforcer. This process is called a conditioned reinforcer or CR for short. Dog trainers use a clicker’s clicking sound as the stimulus. Animals that have accomplished this training (learned a bridge) reacts almost the same to the CR as they would to the reward itself and in many cases prefer the CR that tells them they got it right over the actual “reward”. With people a paycheck is a secondary reinforcer.
Reinforcement Schedules and Extinction
There are 5 kinds of reinforcement schedules which will determine how often a behavior is going to result in a reward:
- Fixed Interval
- Variable Interval
- Fixed Ratio
- Variable Ratio
Fixed interval schedule means reinforcement occurs after a fixed amount of time eg. every minute. With people it means you get rewarded for work done with a paycheck every month-end.
Variable interval schedule means reinforcers are distributed after a varying amount of time. It could be every minute, every five minutes etc.
Fixed ratio schedule means there will be one reinforcement every Nth number of times the behavior is performed correctly eg. a fixed ratio of 1:4 means every 4th behavior will be rewarded. Fixed type ratio’s tends to lead to lousy performance because the animals(and people) know that the first 3 performances will not be rewarded, and the 4th one will no matter what. A fixed ratio of 1:1 means that every correct performance of a behavior will be rewarded.
Variable ratio schedule means reinforcers are distributed based on the average number of correct behaviors. A variable ratio of 1:4 means that on average, 1 out of every 4 behaviors will be rewarded.
It might be the 1st or 2nd or 3rd or 4th as long as it averages out to 1 in 4. This is also called VSR(Variable Schedule of Reinforcement). It’s often assumed when someone writes “VSR” they are referring to a “variable ratio schedule of reinforcement“.
Random schedule means there is no association between the animal’s behavior and the consequence. This is how fate works.
Failing to reinforce a behavior that has previously been reinforced, might cause a behavior to extinguish. This is also called extinction. Variable ratio schedules of reinforcement makes behaviors less vulnerable to extinction because animals(and people) do not expect a reward every time they accomplish a behavior correctly.
Stopping reinforcement of a behavior which has previously been strongly reinforced might cause an “extinction burst“. The animal will not immediately give up the behavior but will instead try it again and again, sometimes harder or faster and more emphatically causing a burst of activity. If the reward still doesn’t come, the behavior will eventually extinguish, or become extinct. The burst of behavior before extinction of the behavior is called an “extinction burst“.
Caution should be taken against needlessly using variable schedules. Most useful behaviors should always get some sort of reinforcement. One might not always click and treat a dog for sitting on command, but you will always reward it with some kind of recognition or praise like “Good dog!“.
When circumstances arise where one are unable to deliver any reinforcement eg. during a long sequence of behaviors, or when the animal is out of contact, then one need to build a buffer against extinction with a VSR(Variable Schedule of Reinforcement), else don’t bother.
Cautions when using positive reinforcement
- Timing is very important. When commanding the animal to “stay” and the animal does a great “stay” and you reward the animal after the release, then you actually rewarded the animal for “getting up”
- Always reward sufficiently to motivate repetition. Mild praise will not be good enough for some animals and some might even require rich food rewards.
- Animals can get bored or sated with certain rewards which will then become demotivational to them instead of keeping them motivated.
- Sometimes animals associate reinforcements with the person giving it to them. If they realize they will not be rewarded when you are not present they will refrain from acting.
- Remember reinforcers increases behaviors, so don’t use positive reinforcement if you don’t want your animal to actively try out new behaviors. Only use positive reinforcement if you want to train your animal to do something.
2. Negative Punishment (P-)
Negative punishment means to remove or take something good away to reduce or stop an unwanted behavior. It’s “negative” because something is taken away when the dog performs incorrectly. It’s “punishment” because it stops the behavior. If the dog enjoys or depends on something good s/he will work to avoid it being taken away.
Example/s of Negative Punishment
Negative punishment would be to take your dogs favorite toy away every time s/he start trying to tear it up. Another example is when the dog jumps and barks when you prepare to throw the ball, if you walk away with the ball when the dog jumps and barks, the dog will begin to learn that jumping and barking makes the ball go away.
Secondary Negative Punishers
Dog trainers will very seldom associate a particular command with negative punishment. Some dog owners do it by mistake though. They will take the dog to the park for some fun and because they are in a hurry, use negative punishment by taking the dog away from the fun. “Come Buddy!” then becomes a conditioned negative punisher.
8. 2 Dog Training Methods Made Popular On TV
When it comes to training dogs it seems that many dog trainers themselves choose one of two paths. On the one side you have the dog trainers following the
- OC Model(Operand Conditioning Model) – also known as positive reinforcement. This method was promoted and made popular by dog trainer Victoria Stilwell on Animal Planet’s TV show “It’s Me Or The Dog“. This method is also taught by Dawn Sylvia-Stasiewicz who trained Bo, the Obamas’ dog and on the other side you have the
- Alpha Dog Model – also known as pack leaders. This method was promoted and made famous by Bob Maida of Yonkers, New York, who trained Ronald Reagan’s dogs. This method is also used and taught by Cesar Millan the dog Whisperer on his TV show “Dog Whisperer with Cesar Millan“.
So, you might ask which of these 2 training methods is the best one to follow to train your dog, either by yourself or someone else? Well, it probably depends on who you are asking 🙂
If you ask someone who prefer the OC Model, they will tell you that Alpha Dog trainers use dominance-based dog training techniques that are cruel and inhumane to dogs, that they are “chokers” or “choke folks” as some call them, because of the choke chains they use.
If you ask someone who prefer the Alpha Dog Model they will tell you the OC Model trainers are “treat slingers” or “cookie pushers” etc.
Through my research I found that a lot of the bad things being said about either model is more due to ignorance than anything else. At first glance I also thought the alpha dog training method was a bit harsh, when in fact it isn’t at all.
The biggest problem with any dog training model is when people abuse it. Some do it intentionally but most probably unintentionally through ignorance. If you listen to the experts from both models, one thing is always clear as daylight. The dogs well-being is first priority and both experts love their dogs dearly. It’s only the manner in which they believe a dog should be trained that differ.
9. 2 Expert Dog Trainers Views On These 2 Methods
Here are some comments by both Dawn Sylvia-Stasiewicz and Bob Maida about their own and each others dog training methods.
Dawn Sylvia-Stasiewicz says:
- “Dominant-based training techniques focus too much on the “bad things” the dog does, and leave it up to the dog to figure out via trial and error, what he must do in order not to get punished.”
- “Why does dog training have to be cruel and punishment-oriented? By using positive reinforcement, you’ll get a trained dog and you will maintain the spirit of that dog.”
- “Anything the dog likes and enjoys is good to train with.”
- “Punishment doesn’t have to be in the form of a harsh reprimand or physical force. Dogs learn good behavior by being rewarded for doing well.”
Dawn Sylvia-Stasiewicz also made the following statement about an Australian client who had a shepherd that wouldn’t stop jumping despite reprimands:
“A trainer who used the alpha dog technique taught the client to knee the dog in the chest each time it jumped. Instead of punishing the dog for doing something bad, Sylvia-Stasiewicz had the client greet the dog only when it was sitting. If the dog jumped, the client ignored the dog or turned his back to the dog, but when the dog sat, the client gave the dog his favorite treat of a stuffed kong or praise as a reward for not jumping. After 5 weeks training the dog stopped jumping.”
Dawn Sylvia-Stasiewicz admitted that results could be quite slow with purely positive reinforcement, but says the method has saved so-called “death row dogs” who some thought impossible to rehabilitate.
Bob Maida says:
- “Supports Cesar Millan’s training philosophy and says he doesn’t believe in “cookie-cutter” training or “one size fits all”.”
- “Believe you need balance, like cooking, if there is too much salt in the dish, it won’t taste good.”
- “Label the alpha dog method as “balanced” and “blended” because it includes positive reinforcement, such as well-timed praise and even treats.”
- “Always considers breed-specific behaviors when training dogs like whether the dog was bred to guard, hunt, fight, pull or has a strong prey drive. Other factors include temperament, environment, age, sensitivity level, behavior and training history.”
- “Hates the term “alpha dog” because it’s a buzzword that prompts the “OC model crowd” or “cookie-cutters” to basically criminalize people that correct dogs.”
- “Says people have this warped Walt Disney concept about dogs, and they don’t realize that there is a hierarchy in the dog pack.”
- “Says if done right there are no bad tools, it’s the misuse of the tool by a fool that is bad.”
- “Believes positive reinforcement is often misused because dog gets praised for merely existing or rewarded when it demands it.”
- “Says his rules have always been to do no harm, maintain harmony, and accomplish training and behavior modification without violating the dog’s trust.”
Bob Maida have trained family pets and dogs for classified projects, personal protection and film. Clients typically contact him when they are dealing with a dog who is aggressive toward people or other dogs, have house-training issues, demonstrate unruly behavior such as leash pulling, knocking over kids and visitors, making the cats life a living hell or stealing food during meals.
Millions of people all over the world have seen how Cesar works with his dogs and he is not called the dog whisperer for nothing. He is brilliant at what he does and wouldn’t have chosen the alpha dog method to train his dogs if he didn’t believe in these methods 100% and that they are truly the best for training dogs. If you would like to learn more about Cesar Millan’s Alpha Dog Training Methods and Techniques Click Here.
10. Summary of Important Facts About Dog Training Methods
- No dog training method or tool is 100% perfect for all dogs all the time. Although the OC Model’s reward-based dog training method of positive reinforcement(giving rewards) and negative punishment(taking away rewards) are probably the most preferred, most promoted and most chosen dog training method used today many experienced dog trainers still use the OC Model’s aversive-based dog training method as well. Lets not forget about the alpha dog training method which is also very popular and also include reward-based training methods as part of their training.
Also important to note is that the dog training method used is not always a good indication of a good trainer. There are many highly skilled aversive-based trainers who have in-depth knowledge of this training method and knows exactly what to do and when to do it but there are also very inexperienced reward-based method trainers who don’t have a clue what they are doing and their training have little to zero affect on the dogs behavior. The big difference is that badly applied reward-based training won’t hurt the dog but badly applied aversive-based training can have serious repercussions for the dog.
- To be able to become a good dog trainer you need to understand how your dog thinks and you need to learn the science behind the training methods and how to apply it to individual dogs effectively. All this sounds easy but it’s not. Some people are blessed to learn things quickly and make things look easy while others have to really work hard at it.
- If you feel you don’t have the time to train your dog yourself it is a good idea to get a professional dog trainer to do it for you. Always watch or observe a few dog trainers in action before deciding to use a specific one. Professional dog trainers will not refuse people from looking and allowing to ask questions before and afterwards. Dog trainers who have done their training through a reputable organization are usually much better and more responsible than those who regulate themselves.
- No one is the perfect dog trainer all the time. Always strive to learn more about your current training method as well as other dog training methods not just to learn what else is effective or good but also what else is ineffective and bad for the dog.
- To see how skilled you are or improve your dog training skills, record yourself with a video camera. Many times inexperienced trainers get impatient with animals because they struggle to learn, when it is clearly the trainer that give unclear or inconsistent commands, inconsistent rewards or the rewards are given at the wrong time
- Many tools are used in conjunction with the various dog training methods, so it’s a good idea to learn exactly how to use these tools before you start using them eg. to use clickers as part of your dog training, there are online Clicker Training courses and books that will teach you how to use clickers with dog training.
I hope you found this article enlightening a full of valuable information. I am sure you have an idea which training method is the one for you. I wish you all the best with your training endeavors and remember to give your pooch all the love s/he can handle 🙂
Let me just say that I am not a professional dog trainer, so if you are, and you read anything where you can correct me on my facts(please, only if you are 100% sure of your facts), and I really do mean anywhere, then please let me know via the Contact Us page, and I will gladly update this information accordingly. I also apologize for the syntax errors, if you find any. English is not my first language, so apologies. 🙂
If you enjoyed this article then please share it with your family and friends on Facebook and other social media sites 🙂